This scientific paper looks at clinical studies of Pharmaceutical drugs and Personal Care Pollutants in our Water Supplies.
These studies show that there is a high level of chemicals and pollutants that ene up in our drinking water, which should be water filter to remove the toxins to prevent any accumulated ill effects from the chemicals.
1. Emerging chemicals of concern: pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Asia, with particular reference to Southern China.
Mar Pollut Bull. 2005 Sep;50(9):913-20.
Richardson BJ, Lam PK, Martin M.
Department of Biology and Chemistry, Research Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong. email@example.com
In many western nations, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are present in aquatic environments, raising concerns amongst chemists and toxicologists regarding their potential environmental fates and effects. However, there are few published reports of PPCPs in environmental samples from Southeast Asia.
Whilst the environmental toxicology of PPCPs is not well understood, several effects cause concern, such as feminisation or masculinisation by hormones and xenoestrogens, synergistic toxicity from complex mixtures at low concentrations, potential creation of resistant strains in natural bacterial populations, and other potential concerns for human health. Whilst both the presence and distributions of PPCPs in Southeast Asia and China are not well known, observations elsewhere suggest that they may be important contaminants in the aquatic environment. This is particularly emphasised by the enormous production and widespread use of many PPCPs in China, particularly antibiotics utilised in human and veterinary medicine applications. This Viewpoint presents a general description of the issue, characterises the current status of PPCP analyses and reporting in the Southeast Asian region, and proposes a recommended approach for monitoring and chemical assessment of one group of PPCPs, antibiotics, in the aquatic environments of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta.
PMID: 16038943 [PubMed – in process]
J Environ Qual. 2005 Jan-Feb;34(1):91-104.
Xia K, Bhandari A, Das K, Pillar G.
Department of Crop & Soil Sciences, 3111 Miller Plant Sciences Building, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Each year, large quantities of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are used worldwide. Once conveyed to wastewater treatment plants, PPCPs can remain unchanged or undergo partial or complete transformation during wastewater treatment processes before discharge into the environment via effluent and biosolids for land application. Biosolids can be a major sink for some PPCPs. Previous investigations have indicated that land application of biosolids may be a potential important route through which PPCPs enter the environment. However, no information is available on exactly how closely the concentrations of PPCPs in the environmental media are related to the land application of PPCP-containing biosolids. This paper reviews currently available information on the occurrence of PPCPs in biosolids, methods of analysis, the potential fate of PPCPs in biosolids-applied soils, and composting as a potential means for removal of PPCPs from biosolids.
PMID: 15647538 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
3. Occurrence of pharmaceutical contaminants and screening of treatment alternatives for southeastern Louisiana.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Dec;948:80-9.
Boyd GR, Grimm DA.
Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, USA. email@example.com
Recent studies conducted in Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Brazil, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere indicate that low-level concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) and their metabolites may be widespread contaminants in our aquatic environment. The persistence of pharmaceutical contaminants has been attributed to (1) human consumption of drugs and subsequent discharges from sewage treatment plants, and (2) veterinary use of drugs and nonpoint discharges from agricultural runoff. Contamination of water resources by these compounds, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), is emerging as an international environmental concern. The long-term effects of continuous, low-level exposure to PPCPs is not well understood. Preliminary data for raw water samples collected from the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, are summarized. Three PPCP compounds (clofibric acid, naproxen, and estrone) were analyzed using solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and GC/MS. Batch experiments also were conducted to determine equilibrium capacity of activated carbon for clofibric acid. Preliminary results indicate the occurrence of the selected PPCP contaminants in raw water samples at or near method-detection limits. For batch equilibrium experiments, preliminary results indicate that activated carbon potentially can be used to remove clofibric acid from water. More research is needed to develop rapid and reliable methods for PPCP analysis and to determine the effectiveness of treatment processes for removal of PPCP contaminants in water.
PMID: 11795398 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
1: Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Oct 26; [Epub ahead of print]
Fent K, Weston AA, Caminada D.
University of Applied Sciences Basel, Institute of Environmental Technology, St. Jakobs-Strasse 84, CH-4132 Muttenz, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
Low levels of human medicines (pharmaceuticals) have been detected in many countries in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents, surface waters, seawaters, groundwater and some drinking waters.
For some pharmaceuticals effects on aquatic organisms have been investigated in acute toxicity assays. The chronic toxicity and potential subtle effects are only marginally known, however. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about human pharmaceuticals in the environment and address several key questions.
What kind of pharmaceuticals and what concentrations occur in the aquatic environment?
What is the fate in surface water and in STP?
What are the modes of action of these compounds in humans and are there similar targets in lower animals?
What acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects may be elicited by pharmaceuticals and by mixtures?
What are the effect concentrations and how do they relate to environmental levels?
Our review shows that only very little is known about long-term effects of pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms, in particular with respect to biological targets. For most human medicines analyzed, acute effects to aquatic organisms are unlikely, except for spills. For investigated pharmaceuticals chronic lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) in standard laboratory organisms are about two orders of magnitude higher than maximal concentrations in STP effluents. For diclofenac, the LOEC for fish toxicity was in the range of wastewater concentrations, whereas the LOEC of propranolol and fluoxetine for zooplankton and benthic organisms were near to maximal measured STP effluent concentrations. In surface water, concentrations are lower and so are the environmental risks. However, targeted ecotoxicological studies are lacking almost entirely and such investigations are needed focusing on subtle environmental effects. This will allow better and comprehensive risk assessments of pharmaceuticals in the future.
PMID: 16257063 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]